terça-feira, 16 de julho de 2013



Born of chayote (Sechium edule) a perennial cucurbit. The stem of the plant used for making paper, and treated beams are used in the manufacture of hats. Boiled, fried or reduced starch for preparing sweets, the roots, which are 25 inches deep, are also edible. The chayote is a vine that should be conducted by means of staking. With branches long and filament wound - the tendrils - develops well especially in places where the climate is mild. Frost or excessive heat may interfere with the budding and the successfulness of the fruit, which is also known as caxixe or machucho.

Revista Globo Rural
HOME >>> The planting is done with chayote chuchus seed, fruits obtained in the plantation itself. To initiate a planting, look for more experienced producers, with matrices selected fruits and healthier. They must be well formed, originating from cultures uniforms, productive and free of pests and diseases.
ENVIRONMENT >>> The growing chayote fits best in areas with mild temperatures ranging between 15 º C and 25 º C. During the winter, the cold weather and frosts prevent the development of planting. The flower drop is caused by excessive heat and rainfall, and fungal diseases.
PLANTING >>> Shortly demanding solo, including being very tolerant to acidity, chayote has, however, productivity is higher when medium textured soils, loose and light, with good fertility or adequately fertilized. The plant does not tolerate excess water and soil must be well drained. Chuchus The seed should be planted after the pre-sprouting. To do so, are placed on the bed of earth in a shaded, ventilated, slightly damp, one beside the other. The mature seed have germinated in 15 days, but should only be planted when the bud reaches about 12 inches. Seat your chuchus seed in the furrow or pit without covering with soil, preventing rot. The mere contact with the ground causes rapid rooting.
>>> Trellis Plant cultivation is traditionally trellis (espalier) as the hanging fruit coloration become more desirable and are more visible at harvest. Build a trellis fence posts sticking firmly on the ground and spaced three feet apart to serve as a support wire flat wire numbers 12 or 16. Make a mesh of wires crossed to 1.80 meter above the ground, height facilitates the handling at planting. Beside each gatepost, chayote plant a seed germinated.
FERTILIZATION >>> To implement the culture, you need to have plenty of phosphorus, which favors the development of roots. You also need two sources of potassium. Fertilization coverage can be made monthly, especially when starting the growth and flowering of the main stem. In the case of maintaining the culture in the field for more than one year, applies a blanket of nitrogen and potassium before the new sprouting, which occurs in early spring.
CARE >>> Irrigation is essential to maintain good productivity greenery. The watering must occur furrow, whose location should be parallel to the planting, to allow wetness around each plant. It can also be installed in the sprinkler pipe end two meters from the ground. The drip system has been used more recently.
PRODUCTION >>> After planting the seed sprouted chayote, it takes 80-110 days to begin harvest. At the height of development of branches and fruit harvest may be required on alternate days, obtaining tender fruit and more suitable for commercialization.


sweet potato

By Valdemir Mota de Menezes

The sweet potato grows best in tropical or subtropical climate, with temperatures above 20 ° C, and the temperature for the cultivation lies between 24 ° C and 26 ° C. In places with low temperatures to sweet potatoes can be grown in greenhouses, but the tubers obtained usually minor.

Sweet potato grown in a pot.


Sweet potatoes need good light to grow well, with at least a few hours of direct sunlight daily.

Most cultivars is adapted to short-day photoperiod, as is the case of the days in the tropics, and rarely flowers in regions where the day is over 12 hours of sunlight.

Plant sweet potatoes in well-drained soil, no rocks and other debris, fertile and rich in organic matter. The ideal soil pH is between 5.5 and 6.5, but the sweet potato is quite tolerant to soil, should be avoided only stony soils, soils subject to waterlogging and compacted soils.

Flush so as to always keep the soil moist without becoming soggy.

Batata-doce brotando
Sweet potatoes can be grown from detached branches of mature plants, from their own or sweet potatoes sprouted from its seeds.

The method used by those who already have plants of sweet potatoes in the garden and live in tropical or subtropical regions, is planting branches taken from their adult plants more vigorous, with eight to ten internodes (internodes each have a sheet, so each foliage must have 8-10 leaves already well developed). About half of the cuttings should be covered with earth, and the other half exposed. The branches root easily in moist soil.

The planting done using the sweet potato is usually done in cold winter regions, where plants do not survive the winter, and people who are starting their crops and have no way to get branches for planting. Normally they are used for small sweet potato planting, which are buried to about 5 cm. Optionally, sweet potatoes can be left in a container partially covered with water to sprout before planting.

Planting a seed is less common, but also gives good results. Plant seeds in small pots, plastic bags suitable for seedlings or cups made of paper towels 10 cm high and 5 cm in diameter, and when transplanting the seedlings reach 10 to 15 cm.

Sweet potatoes can be grown in pots, bags and other containers, provided that they have at least 35 cm in diameter and depth.
Colheita da batata-doce.
The sweet potato is a hardy plant and vigorous growth, and does not require specific cultural practices.

Harvest sweet potatoes.

The harvest can occur 100 days to over 180 days after planting, depending on the cultivar, the form of planting and cultivation conditions. In regions with tropical or subtropical tubers can remain on earth until the moment when they become necessary, since the plant is perennial. In colder weather, the harvest must occur before the arrival of winter temperatures.


By: Valdemir Mota de Menezes


Also suitable for cultivation in small areas, preferably in cold climates, the greenery brings several benefits to health

With slightly sweet flavor and smooth texture, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is enjoyed cooked or raw in salads, but can also be used as an ingredient in purees, mousses, soups, pies, juices and vitamins. Besides tasty, the vegetable has several health benefits: it is diuretic, combat anemia, decongest the urinary tract and has anti-inflammatory effect.

Although the root of dark-red color is the main commercial product - is of great value in the production of sugar - the leaves correspond to the most nutritious part of this herbaceous plant. It is therein that are larger amounts of calcium, iron, sodium, potassium and vitamins A, B and C. Big and bulky, the leaves can be eaten in omelets or sautéed and cookies.

Tuberous roots of higher commercial value, constitutes a major source of sugar in Northern Europe
Originating from temperate regions of Europe and North Africa, has its beet planting more assured in cold climates. The most suitable temperature for the development of the plant are within the range of ten to twenty degrees. Therefore, the best Brazilian regions for growing cover the South and Southeast. In São Paulo, there are the cities of Sorocaba, Mogi das Cruzes and own capital. In the warm months, sowing of sugar beet is more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The heat can interfere with the formation of roots, causing light rings that depreciate the product at the time of sales. Under high temperature also increases the risk of attack by diseases such as leaf spot, root rot and rust. Among the pests that are mostly affecting the vegetable caterpillar-threaded and kitty.

Planting: year-round in areas above 800 meters altitude and cold weather
Soil: light, well drained
Ideal temperature: in the range 10-20 degrees
Harvest from 70 to 100 days after the beginning of cultivation
Minimum area: small beds and crates


The sheets, usually neglected, are rich in minerals and vitamins A, B and C
Era - The beet can be sown all year round in areas with altitude above 800 meters. From 400 to 800 meters, the cultivation is indicated between the months of February and June. Below 400 meters, the best time for planting is April-June. Sowing can become more difficult in the hot and rainy months. One reason is the lack of cultivating major foliar disease resistant to leaf spot.
Fertilization - Before composting, do soil analysis, followed by the lime, if necessary. With 30 days before the beginning of the sowing or transplanting, apply 20 tons per hectare of manure and manure. Increase the amount to 30 tonnes in case of cultivation occur in sandy soils. If the choice is the use of chicken manure, the material should also be well tanned. In poor soil together with the fertilizer (NPK), it is good to add two to four pounds per acre and three pounds of boron per acre of zinc. At 15 days and 30 days after seedling emergence (or transplanting), spray five grams of sodium molybdate or ammonium molybdate, mixed in ten liters of water.
Location - For sowing, keep spacing between 20-30 centimeters, the transplantation or after thinning, the recommendation is to keep ten to 15 inches between plants. To facilitate the initial cultivation is indicated descortiçadas buy seeds. They have gone through a mechanical process of breaking the glomerulus - commercial seeds that have three to four botanical seeds inside. There are various options available in the market.

Sowing - From one to two inches deep is ideal for sowing beets. Sowing can be done in specific trays, which are sold at retail, or directly in situ. After 20 days, the transplanting may already be done. Another option is to use beds (not masonry) with a 1.2 meter wide and 20 to 30 inches in height, between a bed and another one should leave a space of 40 to 50 centimeters. In this case, the plants are ready for transplant after 20 to 30 days after sowing. To strengthen the plant, do the sleaze when she reached five inches tall.
Harvest - time to start the harvest varies with the choice of planting. No-tillage, the beets can be harvested 60-70 days after cultivation. For transplanted seedlings, takes 90-100 days to start picking up the greenery. When achieve six to eight inches in diameter, the roots are at the point of harvest.
Costs - beet seed can be purchased at stores that specialize in agricultural products. An envelope out of ten grams on average to two actual, the 25 grams rises to three dollars. A kilogram of seed costs from 40 to 55 real, but are generally sold in tins of 500 grams. The hybrid seeds are more expensive price and reach five times greater than that of conventional ones.


By Valdemir Mota de Menezes

Let's talk here about planting corn, specifically the planting of sweet corn that species that grows a lot and can reach a height of up to 2 meters. They should be cultured in groups next to each other pollination to occur. The species of corn can even be eaten raw after being taken from the foot, which is so sweet. Consumed immediately to enjoy the sweetness of the corn.

Where in growing corn?
Be sure to plant corn in a place where it is bathed in direct sunlight and do not have strong winds to not disrupt pollination, growth and development of the foot. Plants, like are too big and are fragile, they also need a soil rich and fertile.

Sowing and planting
Sow indoors in the month of April or at a time when the soil temperature is 10 º celcius.
The depth of the seed must be 3 to 5 cm.
The distance between the plants should be 30 to 50 cm.
The space between lines should be 45 to 60 cm.

The time of sowing and harvesting of corn ranges from 5 to 6 months.
It is best to plant corn in groups because the pollinating agent of them is the wind and not insects, and this facilitates the development.
Should be watered regularly

How is the corn harvest?
To find out if the cobs (corn cob) foot corn are ripe note that if the leaves are brownish involve, if it is because they are mature. Take a pinch a grain and leaves a note that milk is because inside is ripe.

main problems
Aphids, birds, mice, squirrels, and disease of the maize-wicking.

How is the corn harvest?
To find out if the cobs (corn cob) foot corn are ripe note that if the leaves are brownish involve, if it is because they are mature. Take a pinch a grain and leaves a note that milk is because inside is ripe.

main problems
Aphids, birds, mice, squirrels, and disease of the maize-wicking.